This is a list or table of chemicals that can kill you. Some of these poisons are common and some are rare. Some you need in order to live, while others you should avoid at all costs. Note that the values are median lethal values for an average human. Real-life toxicity depends on your size, age, gender, weight, route of exposure and many other factors. This list just offers a glimpse at a range of chemicals and their relative toxicity.
Basically, all chemicals are poisonous. It just depends on the amount! Looking at the list of poisons, you might be tempted to think lead is safer than salt or bee sting venom is safer than cyanide. Looking at the lethal dose can be misleading because some of these chemicals are cumulative poisons e.
Individual biochemistry is also important. While it might take half a gram of bee venom to kill the average person, a much lower dose would cause anaphylactic shock and death if you're allergic to it. Some "poisons" are actually necessary for life, such as water and salt. Other chemicals serve no known biological function and are purely toxic, such as lead and mercury.
While it's unlikely you'll be exposed to tetrodotoxin unless you eat improperly prepared fugu a dish prepared from pufferfishsome poisons routinely cause problems.
These include:. Share Flipboard Email. Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph. Chemistry Expert. Helmenstine holds a Ph.
She has taught science courses at the high school, college, and graduate levels. Facebook Facebook Twitter Twitter. This table is organized from least deadly to most deadly:. Pain medicine over the counter or prescription Sedative and antipsychotic drugs Antidepressants Cardiovascular drugs Household cleaners particularly when they are mixed Alcohol both grain alcohol and types not intended for human consumption Pesticides Insect, arachnid, and reptile venom Anticonvulsants Personal care products Wild mushrooms Food poisoning.
What Is in Your Urine? Take a Look at the Chemical Composition.LD 50 figures are frequently used as a general indicator of a substance's acute toxicity. A lower LD 50 is indicative of increased toxicity. The test was created by J. Trevan in LD 50 is usually determined by tests on animals such as laboratory mice. Inthe U. Food and Drug Administration approved alternative methods to LD 50 for testing the cosmetic drug Botox without animal tests.
The LD 50 is usually expressed as the mass of substance administered per unit mass of test subject, typically as milligrams of substance per kilogram of body mass, sometimes also stated as nanograms suitable for botulinummicrogramsor grams suitable for paracetamol per kilogram.
Stating it this way allows the relative toxicity of different substances to be compared, and normalizes for the variation in the size of the animals exposed although toxicity does not always scale simply with body mass.Pert cpm example problems with solution pdf
For substances in the environment, such as poisonous vapors or substances in water that are toxic to fish, the concentration in the environment per cubic metre or per litre is used, giving a value of LC But in this case, the exposure time is important see below. However, this also means that LD 50 is not the lethal dose for all subjects; some may be killed by much less, while others survive doses far higher than the LD Lethal dosage often varies depending on the method of administration ; for instance, many substances are less toxic when administered orally than when intravenously administered.
For this reason, LD 50 figures are often qualified with the mode of administration, e. These measures are used more commonly within Radiation Health Physicsas survival beyond 60 days usually results in recovery.
A comparable measurement is LCt 50which relates to lethal dosage from exposure, where C is concentration and t is time. ICt 50 is the dose that will cause incapacitation rather than death. These measures are commonly used to indicate the comparative efficacy of chemical warfare agents, and dosages are typically qualified by rates of breathing e. Some chemicals, such as hydrogen cyanideare rapidly detoxified by the human body, and do not follow Haber's Law.
So, in these cases, the lethal concentration may be given simply as LC 50 and qualified by a duration of exposure e. The Material Safety Data Sheets for toxic substances frequently use this form of the term even if the substance does follow Haber's Law.
For disease-causing organisms, there is also a measure known as the median infective dose and dosage. The median infective dose ID 50 is the number of organisms received by a person or test animal qualified by the route of administration e. Because of the difficulties in counting actual organisms in a dose, infective doses may be expressed in terms of biological assay, such as the number of LD 50 's to some test animal. In biological warfare infective dosage is the number of infective doses per cubic metre of air times the number of minutes of exposure e.
As a measure of toxicity, LD 50 is somewhat unreliable and results may vary greatly between testing facilities due to factors such as the genetic characteristics of the sample population, animal species tested, environmental factors and mode of administration. There can be wide variability between species as well; what is relatively safe for rats may very well be extremely toxic for humans cf. For example, chocolate, comparatively harmless to humans, is known to be toxic to many animals.
When used to test venom from venomous creatures, such as snakesLD 50 results may be misleading due to the physiological differences between mice, rats, and humans. Many venomous snakes are specialized predators on mice, and their venom may be adapted specifically to incapacitate mice; and mongooses may be exceptionally resistant. While most mammals have a very similar physiology, LD 50 results may or may not have equal bearing upon every mammal species, such as humans, etc.The therapeutic index TI ; also referred to as therapeutic ratio is a quantitative measurement of the relative safety of a drug.
It is a comparison of the amount of a therapeutic agent that causes the therapeutic effect to the amount that causes toxicity. In contrast, in a drug development setting TI is calculated based on plasma exposure levels. Today, more sophisticated toxicity endpoints are used. For many drugs, there are severe toxicities that occur at sublethal doses in humans, and these toxicities often limit the maximum dose of a drug.
A higher therapeutic index is preferable to a lower one: a patient would have to take a much higher dose of such a drug to reach the toxic threshold than the dose taken to elicit the therapeutic effect. Generally, a drug or other therapeutic agent with a narrow therapeutic range i.
This may be achieved through therapeutic drug monitoring TDM protocols.
What Are the Most Deadly Poisons and Chemicals?
TDM is recommended for use in the treatment of psychiatric disorders with lithium due to its narrow therapeutic range. A high therapeutic index TI is preferable for a drug to have a favorable safety and efficacy profile. However, understanding the preliminary TI of a drug candidate is of utmost importance as early as possible since TI is an important indicator of the probability of the successful development of a drug. Recognizing drug candidates with potentially suboptimal TI at earliest possible stage helps to initiate mitigation or potentially re-deploy resources.
In a drug development setting, TI is the quantitative relationship between efficacy pharmacology and safety toxicologywithout considering the nature of pharmacological or toxicological endpoints themselves. In general, it is the exposure of a given tissue to drug i. For example, at the same dose there may be marked inter-individual variability in exposure due to polymorphisms in metabolism, DDIs or differences in body weight or environmental factors.
These considerations emphasize the importance of using exposure rather than dose for calculating TI. To account for delays between exposure and toxicity, the TI for toxicities that occur after multiple dose administrations should be calculated using the exposure to drug at steady state rather than after administration of a single dose. A review published by Muller and Milton in Nature Reviews Drug Discovery critically discusses the various aspects of TI determination and interpretation in a translational drug development setting for both small molecules and biotherapeutics.
For instance, the opioid painkiller remifentanil is very forgiving, offering a therapeutic index of 33, while Diazepama benzodiazepine sedative-hypnotic and skeletal muscle relaxanthas a less forgiving therapeutic index of Less safe are cocainea stimulant and local anaestheticand ethanol colloquially, the "alcohol" in alcoholic beveragesa widely available sedative consumed worldwide — the therapeutic indices for these substances are andrespectively.
Even less-safe are drugs such as digoxina cardiac glycoside ; its therapeutic index is approximately Other examples of drugs with a narrow therapeutic range, which may require drug monitoring both to achieve therapeutic levels and to minimize toxicity, include: paracetamol acetaminophendimercaproltheophyllinewarfarin and lithium carbonate.
Some antibiotics require monitoring to balance efficacy with minimizing adverse effectsincluding: gentamicinvancomycinamphotericin B nicknamed 'amphoterrible' for this very reasonand polymyxin B.Blogger camera app
Radiotherapy aims to minimize the size of tumors and kill cancer cells with high energy. The source of high energy arises from x-rays, gamma rays, charged particles and heavy particles.Lg master codes
The therapeutic ratio in radiotherapy for cancer treatment is related to the maximum radiation dose by which death of cancer cells is locally controlled and the minimum radiation dose by which cells in normal tissues have low acute and late morbidity.
Thus, a favorable outcome in dose-response curve is the response of tumor tissue is greater than that of normal tissue to the same dose, meaning that the treatment is effective to tumors and does not cause serious morbidity to normal tissue. Reversely, overlapping response of two tissues is highly likely to cause serious morbidity to normal tissue and ineffective treatment to tumors. The mechanism of radiation therapy is categorized into direct and indirect radiation.
Both of direct and indirect radiations induce DNAs to have a mutation or chromosomal rearrangement during its repair process. Indirect radiation occurs from radiolysis of water, creating a free hydroxyl radical, hydronium and electron. Then, hydroxyl radical transfers its radical to DNA.
Or together with hydronium and electron, a free hydroxyl radical can damage base region of DNA. Cancer cells have imbalance of signals in cell cycle. G1 arrest delays repair mechanism before synthesis of DNA in S phase and mitosis in M phase, suggesting key checkpoint to lead survival of cells. It was also known that S phase is the most resistant to radiation and M phase was the most sensitive to radiation.Crush meaning in love
For example, irradiation to myeloid leukemia cell leads to an increase in p53 and a decrease in the level of DNA synthesis.This list contains comprehensive information about the toxicity of venomous snakes.
All LDvalues in this list are from laboratory testing with mice. Snake venom is very specific, you can NOT extrapolated use the LD50 from mice to predict the effect on human beings. The list allows you to find the 10 most venomous snakes of the planet by your own criteria.
It is presorted by intravenous LD50, but you can sort it to your own criteria by clicking on any column headline. This list is updated regularly and it's our aim to provide the most comprehensive data collection of this kind in the internet. Even though, you will realize there are a lot of white spots in the table. If you have data, please contact us. Scientific Name The scientific name is the only way to clearly identify a snake species. Common names can be redundant, but scientific names are unique by definition.
Weight Maximum weight of the snake. For some snakes we have maximum lenght for adults but weight only for hatchlings, don't wonder if length and weight do not fit together. Those are separate values. Fang Maximum fang length. Venom The venom yield that can get extracted from a snake, usually by milking it. The milking process can be quite cumbersome, especially with rear fanged species like the Boomslang Dispholidus typus.
This snakes has a low nominal venom yield, but a full bite can be lethal nonetheless. Most of the venom yields in our list are from researches in the s or even earlier. New milking methods would in many cases probably result in much higher venom yields.
LD50 SC subcutaneous injection LD50 is the abbreviation for lethal dose 50, sometimes referred as median lethal dose as well. The unit is milligramm per kilo, low LD50 values characterize strong venoms.Empaque de culata precio
All LD50 values in this table are from laboratory testing with mice. Testing with other animals e. That's why they are not included in this list, our LD50s are from murine testing only. The way of injection plays a vital role in envenomination as well. Subcutaneous injection is the injection directly under the skin.
Subcutaneous injection the most common envenomination after a snake bite for humans. That's why we presorted the table by this criteria LD50 IV intravenous injection This is the LD50 for intravenous injection IVthis happens when the snakebite hits a blood vessel.
In most cases - this really depends on the venom type - intravenous injections will show a much stronger effect than subcutaneous injections. Snakebites that directly hit a blood vessel are fortunately relatively rare. Intramuscular injection requires - at least from the perspective of a human bite victim - long venom fangs. That's why this way of envenomination is comparatively rare and less frequently tested.
Please keep in mind that this table only describes the toxicity of a snake considered they get a full bite with venom injection.Medically reviewed by Drugs.
Last updated on Mar 14, Use: Alone or in combination with other antihypertensive drugs in the treatment of hypertension. Bolus Injection : -Initial bolus dose: 0.
After 15 minutes, a second bolus of 0. Continuous Infusion : -The continuous infusion should begin immediately following a bolus injection of 0. Uses : -Treatment of chronic stable angina -Improvement in exercise tolerance in patients with chronic stable angina -Management of exertional angina pectoris due to atherosclerotic coronary artery disease -Management of chronic stable angina and angina due to coronary artery spasm.
Use with caution. The nearest equivalent total daily dosage should be used when switching between different formulations of this drug. Elderly patients should start on the low end of the dosing range, taking into consideration decreased renal, hepatic, or cardiac function and of concomitant disease or other drug therapies.
Safety and efficacy have not been established in patients younger than 18 years. Administration advice : -Oral, extended-release capsules may be taken by opening and sprinkling the contents of the capsule into a spoonful of applesauce, followed by a glass of cool water. The dose should be used immediately, and the contents should not be subdivided. Storage requirements : -The manufacturer product information should be consulted. IV compatibility : -The manufacturer product information should be consulted.
General : -Dosing should be patient-specific. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.
The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own personal medication records. Available for Android and iOS devices. Subscribe to Drugs.Jump to navigation.
The tables listing the drugs used in drug poisoning deaths show that it is possible to use drugs as a successful method of suicide using a variety of different drugs. One important success factor is the dosage - how much of any particular drug needs to be taken for it to be lethal. Minimum lethal doses MLDs were historically calculated based on animal testing, with the results extrapolated for humans. After all, you can't test how much of a certain drug is required to make a human die.
In a study by 18 pharmaceutical companies in 1it was found that the single dose acute toxicity test that was normally used to identify the minimum lethal dose of a medicine had little or no value in assessing the risk to humans.
Part of the problem is that humans come in such a variety of different shapes and sizes. Certain drugs might need much higher dose in someone weighing kg then 60kg, although if it is a drug that affects the brain the dose might be very similar. Also, exposure to certain drugs generates a tolerance to them, so that much higher doses are required to have an effect. For example, people taking morphine for long term pain control often need increased doses over time to have the same effect.Saif ali khan age son
With that proviso, there have been tables published on MLDs. Two such tables are presented below note some entries have footnotes associated. The first figure in each entry is quantity, the second dosage strength. The figures in the second column were taken from a posting on alt.
In his book, Stone 2 points out that lethal doses quoted in medical reviews are generally a range of values, and that the MLD can vary significantly between sources. So whilst there is a table of MLDs below, it must be highly questionable how much accuracy can be attributed to this information.
We have received a number of emails from readers of this site questioning the validity of certain MLDs, but there simply is no easy-to-access guide for MLDs of most the drugs in this table. The section Which drug provides more information on lethal drugs that are commonly used for suicide, and the notes to the table below proving important information on doses for some of the more commonly discussed lethal drugs. In the table below, the first figure is the number of pills, and the second figure is the dosage of each pill.
Nitschke and Stewart 3 state that Propoxyphene commonly comes in mg tablets, and state an MLD of 10 grams tablets of mgtaken together with long acting sleeping tablets like Oxazepam.
Nitschke and Stewart 3 state that the MLD of Amitriptyline is 5gm, and the most commonly supplied dosage is 50mg, meaning x 50mg would be required, taken together with long acting sleeping tablets like Oxazepam.
Both sources recommend taking the drug in combination with others. Nitschke and Stewart 3 state that the oral form of Nembutal sold in ml bottles sterile bottles at a concentration of 60mg per ml i. For powdered Chinese Nembutal which is sold in higher quantities, 10grams dissolved in 50ml of water is suggested, and forum posts suggest this is a more reliable dose whilst also being easier to ingest.
They recommend ceasing any other medications a few days before taking Nembutal. There is also non-sterile green coloured Nembutal that is concentrated mg per ml, in which case a 50ml sample equates to 15 grams, and is more than enough for a peaceful death. Compassion in Dying 5 recommend 6g - 9g of Nembutal. Dignitas use 15 grams of a concentrated soluble form of Nembutal that can be swallowed in a few mouthfuls.Jump to navigation.
In the US see Drug poisoning in the USthe story is similar, with the CDC reporting that the most commonly used drugs identified in drug-related suicides were psychoactive drugs, such as sedatives and antidepressants, followed by opiates and prescription pain medications. So the statistics give a clear indication of which drugs can be used to achieve a drug induced death, although they don't actually show, by method, what the percentage success rate of each method is.
If the overall ratio of success with a drug induced suicide is 40 to 1 against, it is probably likely that even the drugs that appear highest on the table still have a fair number of unsuccessful attempts. A common drug used in attempted suicides is sleeping tablets of various forms. Decades ago, when barbiturates were prescribed for sleep issues, it was possible to overdose on them. Modern sleeping tablets are notby themselves, lethal, and taking a large dose as a suicide attempt is more likely to result in a long sleep and a trip to the hospital emergency department than death.
What does not appear high on the list of drug related deaths is barbiturates. Although a number of barbiturates are highly lethal, the reason they don't appear highly on the tables of drug related deaths is that they are now rarely prescribed, and extremely difficult to obtain without a prescription.
Literature and websites most commonly cite Seconal Secobarbital and Nembutal Pentobarbital as the two most effective barbiturates for a swift, painless and swift death. The suicide holy grail. Seconal is a strong sedative that is used to treat severe, long-standing insomnia in people already taking barbiturates. Reportedly this drug is not even available on prescription in the UK anymore, although it may well be in other countries, including the USA.
Amitriptyline is a tricyclic anti-depressant that can also be very effective when combined with a sleeping medication like Oxazepam. It is important to take anti sickness drugs with this method as the drugs taste very bitter see Things to consider. Or else try and put them into empty 1gm gelatine capsules if they can be obtained.
Opinions on minimum lethal doses for this method differ, with Nitschke and Stewart 1stating 5 grams, and the ASH website 2 stating grams depending on weight. ASH 2 also recommend a cocktail of drugs that includes Cimetidine and Midazolam. Full information on quantities is on their website. It should be noted that death using this method takes between 12 and 24 hours, which does not make it the quickest method, although death is said to be peaceful.
The length of time to death makes not being interrupted quite crucial, meaning other methods are probably better. There is a report and discussion on The Peaceful Pill Handbook forum following someone getting numbness and burning in their mouth whilst trying to ingest a lethal dose of Amitriptyline, although the response from the expert was that not everyone would get this reaction. Beware though, as ingesting high but non-lethal quantities of drugs is likely to cause harm.
Nitschke and Stewart 1 do mention this method, although it is not widely commented on as a popular suicide method. Nembutal is currently the drug of choice for human euthanasia in countries where that is legal, making it an unsurprising choice for people wishing to end their own lives in other countries.
Given it is highly effective, its use is tightly controlled, and thus it is extremely difficult to get hold of at all, and almost impossible to obtain legally. One of the reasons why many people resort to less effective drugs. Nembutal's FDA approved human uses include treatment of seizures and preoperative and other sedation.
It is used by vets as an anaesthetic, and for animal euthanasia. Nembutal is generally obtained in liquid form, but is difficult to obtain from any place in the US, Canada, Europe or Australia. In the Peaceful Pill Handbook 1Nitschke and Stewart have a long section about how to obtain this drug, mainly centred around purchasing it in person from vets in Mexico, Peru, Bolivia and Thailand although noting that taking it out of any of those countries is illegalas is posting it back to your home country.
Prices are much cheaper than mail order. There are reports from people who have successfully obtained the drug, and from those that haven't.
Towards the end of it seemed it was increasingly difficult to obtain the drug over-the-counter in Mexico, although by no means impossible with persistence. In Peru seemed the country of choice for obtaining over-the-counter Nembutal. It is also possible to obtain very pure powered Nembutal from China via a number of mail order sources.
It is best to check the latest version of the Peaceful Pill ebook and forum 1 for current information before attempting to purchase from any source although see the notes to Minimum lethal doses for information on lethal doses. Users on the forum often discuss most reliable sources to purchase this drug, and it is changing all the time.
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