Pogrom meaning in urdu

Pogrom meaning in urdu

Pogroms continued to occur in the early 20th century and during and immediately after World War II in Eastern Europe, Germany and beyond. Though the precise characteristics of a pogrom vary widely depending on the specific incidents, a pogrom is generally considered to be a violent attack against a group based on their ethnic identity, and is mostly used to refer to attacks against Jews in 19th and 20th-century Europe.

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The Russian government forbade its new Jewish subjects from settling in Russian territory outside the Pale of Settlement, an area that included parts of present-day Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and Poland. Although an attack in Odessa is sometimes considered to be the first pogrom in the Russian Empire, most historians cite incidents beginning in Elizavetgrad in present-day Ukraine as the beginning of the Russian pogrom phenomenon.

The Elizavetgrad violence spread rapidly throughout seven provinces in southern Russia and Ukraine, where peasant attackers looted Jewish stores and homes, destroyed property, and raped women.

pogrom meaning in urdu

In pogroms also occurred in Kiev and Odessa among a hundred other locations. The first Jewish self-defense organizations, initiated by students at Novorossiysk University in Odessa, began to form at this time. Corpses of the Jews killed in the Bialystok pogrom are laid down outside the Jewish hospital. Historians disagree about the degree to which the Russian government may have been involved in coordinating these attacks; some argue that it was not involved and some that it must have been.

Either way, official response was often slow. In some cases only after days of violence did the police and military intervene to restore order, and they sometimes joined the violent mobs.

It was also rumored that Jews were connected to the assassination of Czar Alexander II by members of the Narodnaya Volya socialist movement. During the s, the Russian government enacted anti-Jewish legislation limiting the number of Jews who could attend secondary schools and universities and preventing Jewish law school graduates from joining the bar. Even as the incidence of pogroms slowly lessened in the late s, mostly due to outcry from the West, Jews sought refuge in Western Europe and the United States, in addition to the land of Israel, which was then under Ottoman rule.

Pogroms also inspired many Jews to become politically active, joining organizations such as the General Jewish Labor Bund, Bolshevik groups and self-defense leagues. Some Russian Jews found hope in Zionism. The pogroms also spurred American Jews to organize on behalf of their Russian brethren, and was cited as a factor in the establishment of the American Jewish Committee.

Emil Flohri print in response to the Kishinev pogrom. Library of Congress.

Pogroms continued to occur in the early 20th century. Particularly violent were the pogroms from to Entry 1 of 2 : an organized massacre of helpless people specifically : such a massacre of Jews pogrom.

Send us feedback. See more words from the same year Dictionary Entries near pogrom pogonotomy pogonotrophy pogo stick pogrom pogromist pogy poh. Accessed 23 Jan. Keep scrolling for more More Definitions for pogrom pogrom. Please tell us where you read or heard it including the quote, if possible. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! On 'Feign,' 'Feint,' and 'Faint' No false moves here. The Rules of 'Small Ball' This term is batting a thousand.

We're intent on clearing it up 'Nip it in the butt' or 'Nip it in the bud'? We're gonna stop you right there Literally How to use a word that literally drives some pe Is Singular 'They' a Better Choice? A selection of words from the chillier parts of t Test your vocabulary with our question quiz! Login or Register. Save Word. First Known Use of pogrom Nounin the meaning defined above Verbin the meaning defined above.

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History and Etymology for pogrom Noun Yiddish, from Russ, literally, devastation. Keep scrolling for more. Learn More about pogrom.

Time Traveler for pogrom The first known use of pogrom was in See more words from the same year. Dictionary Entries near pogrom pogonotomy pogonotrophy pogo stick pogrom pogromist pogy poh See More Nearby Entries. More Definitions for pogrom. English Language Learners Definition of pogrom.As of this writing, Ukraine is drawing to a close the bloodiest day of a hour pogrom.

My Baruch was three years old then and she married during the Pogrom in Kiev. Let us make sixty the minimum—or let there be a pogrom among the authors! These gentry know well the precise points where a pogrom can most easily be started. Milovka lay off the pogrom route, and had not of itself caught the contagion; careful injection of the virus was necessary.

In the beginning of the twelfth century the Jewish colony of Kiev experienced the first pogrom. A massacre or persecution instigated by the government or by the ruling class against a minority group, particularly Jews see also Jews. See synonyms for pogrom on Thesaurus. Are you learning Spanish?

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Either way, this quiz on Spanish words for animals is for you. Words nearby pogrom pogoniasispogonionpogonippogonophoranpogo stickpogromPogson ratiopogyPohaiPohangpohiri. Words related to pogrom butcheryexterminationannihilationbloodbathgenocidecarnagebloodlettingslaughtermurderbloodsheddecimationslayingassassination. Example sentences from the Web for pogrom As of this writing, Ukraine is drawing to a close the bloodiest day of a hour pogrom. Crimes of Charity Konrad Bercovici.

Shandygaff Christopher Morley. Ghetto Comedies Israel Zangwill. All rights reserved. Need Homework Help?The term is usually applied to attacks on Jews in the Russian Empire in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The first extensive pogroms followed the assassination of Tsar Alexander II in Although the assassin was not a Jewand only one Jew was associated with him, false rumours aroused Russian mobs in more than cities and towns to attack Jews and destroy their property.

In the two decades following, pogroms gradually became less prevalent; but from to they were common throughout the country. Thereafter, to the end of the Russian monarchy, mob action against the Jews was intermittent and less widespread. The pogrom in Kishinev now Chisinau in Russian-ruled Moldavia in Aprilalthough more severe than most, was typical in many respects. For two days mobs, inspired by local leaders acting with official support, killed, looted, and destroyed without hindrance from police or soldiers.

When troops were finally called out and the mob dispersed, 45 Jews had been killed, nearly had been wounded, and 1, Jewish homes had been pillaged. Those responsible for inciting the outrages were not punished. The Russian central government did not organize pogroms, as was widely believed; but the anti-Semitic policy that it carried out from to made them possible.

Official persecution and harassment of Jews led the numerous anti-Semites to believe that their violence was legitimateand their belief was strengthened by the active participation of a few high and many minor officials in fomenting attacks and by the reluctance of the government either to stop pogroms or to punish those responsible for them.

Pogroms have also occurred in other countries, notably in Poland and in Germany during the Hitler regime.

Definitions of pogrom

See also anti-Semitism ; Kristallnacht. Pogrom Article Additional Info.

pogrom meaning in urdu

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pogrom (n.)

Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree See Article History. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content.

Subscribe Now. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. At this time there also arose the oft-repeated accusation…. The gradual process of enserfment of the peasantry in the Left Bank culminated in under Catherine II. The obligations there, however, were less onerous than in the Right Bank.Enlarged population includes full or partial Jewish ancestry : Jewish ethnicity, nationhood, and religion are strongly interrelated, [18] [19] as Judaism is the ethnic religion of the Jewish people, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance.

Jews originated as an ethnic and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, [9] in the part of the Levant known as the Land of Israel. Some consider that these Canaanite sedentary Israelites melded with incoming nomadic groups known as 'Hebrews'. In the millennia following, Jewish diaspora communities coalesced into major distinct ethnic groups : Ashkenazim European Jewsand Sephardim Iberian Jews ; furthermore, Mizrahim Oriental Jews are often—particularly in Israel—regarded as separate from Sephardim.

The modern State of Israel is the only country where Jews form a majority of the population.

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It defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state in the Basic LawsHuman Dignity and Liberty in particular, which is based on the Declaration of Independence. Israel's Law of Return grants the right of citizenship to Jews who have expressed their desire to settle in Israel.

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Despite their small percentage of the world's population, Jews have significantly influenced and contributed to human progress in many fields, both historically and in modern times, including philosophy[35] ethics[36] literature[37] politics[37] business[37] fine arts and architecture[37] musictheatre [38] and cinemamedicine[39] [40] and science and technology[37] as well as religion ; Jews authored the Bible[41] [42] founded Early Christianity [43] and had a profound influence on Islam.

According to the Hebrew Biblethe name of both the tribe and kingdom derive from Judahthe fourth son of Jacob. The etymological equivalent is in use in other languages, e. It is widely recognized that the attributive use of the noun Jewin phrases such as Jew lawyer or Jew ethicsis both vulgar and highly offensive. In such contexts Jewish is the only acceptable possibility. Some people, however, have become so wary of this construction that they have extended the stigma to any use of Jew as a noun, a practice that carries risks of its own.

In a sentence such as There are now several Jews on the councilwhich is unobjectionable, the substitution of a circumlocution like Jewish people or persons of Jewish background may in itself cause offense for seeming to imply that Jew has a negative connotation when used as a noun. Judaism shares some of the characteristics of a nation[11] [54] [12] [55] [56] [57] an ethnicity[10] a religionand a culture[58] [59] [60] making the definition of who is a Jew vary slightly depending on whether a religious or national approach to identity is used.

Historical definitions of Jewish identity have traditionally been based on halakhic definitions of matrilineal descent, and halakhic conversions.

pogrom meaning in urdu

Interpretations of sections of the Tanakh, such as Deuteronomy —5, by Jewish sages, are used as a warning against intermarriage between Jews and Canaanites because "[the non-Jewish husband] will cause your child to turn away from Me and they will worship the gods of others. According to historian Shaye J. Cohenthe status of the offspring of mixed marriages was determined patrilineally in the Bible. He brings two likely explanations for the change in Mishnaic times: first, the Mishnah may have been applying the same logic to mixed marriages as it had applied to other mixtures Kil'ayim.

Thus, a mixed marriage is forbidden as is the union of a horse and a donkeyand in both unions the offspring are judged matrilineally. A factual reconstruction for the origin of the Jews is a difficult and complex endeavor. It requires examining at least 3, years of ancient human history using documents in vast quantities and variety written in at least ten near Eastern languages.

As archaeological discovery relies upon researchers and scholars from diverse disciplines, the goal is to interpret all of the factual data, focusing on the most consistent theory. The prehistory and ethnogenesis of the Jews are closely intertwined with archaeology, biology, and historical textual records, as well as religious literature and mythology.

The ethnic stock to which Jews originally trace their ancestry was a confederation of Iron Age Semitic -speaking tribes known as the Israelites that inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.

The Twelve Tribes are described as descending from the twelve sons of Jacob. Jacob and his family migrated to Ancient Egypt after being invited to live with Jacob's son Joseph by the Pharaoh himself. The patriarchs' descendants were later enslaved until the Exodus led by Mosesafter which the Israelites conquered Canaan under Moses' successor Joshuawent through the period of the Biblical judges after the death of Joshua, then through the mediation of Samuel became subject to a king, Saulwho was succeeded by David and then Solomonafter whom the United Monarchy ended and was split into a separate Kingdom of Israel and a Kingdom of Judah.

The Kingdom of Judah is described as comprising the Tribe of Judahthe Tribe of Benjaminpartially the Tribe of Leviand later adding remnants of other tribes who migrated there from the Kingdom of Israel. Modern archaeology has largely discarded the historicity of this narrative, [86] with it being reframed as constituting the Israelites ' inspiring national myth narrative. The Israelites and their culture, according to the modern archaeological account, did not overtake the region by force, but instead branched out of the Canaanite peoples and culture through the development of a distinct monolatristic —and later monotheistic —religion centered on Yahweh.

The growth of Yahweh-centric belief, along with a number of cultic practices, gradually gave rise to a distinct Israelite ethnic groupsetting them apart from other Canaanites.

The Israelites become visible in the historical record as a people between and BCE. The term Jew originated from the Roman "Judean" and denoted someone from the southern kingdom of Judah. Grabbe asserted that the "alleged decree of Cyrus" regarding Judah, "cannot be considered authentic", but that there was a "general policy of allowing deportees to return and to re-establish cult sites".

He also stated that archaeology suggests that the return was a "trickle" taking place over decades, rather than a single event. As part of the Persian Empirethe former Kingdom of Judah became the province of Judah Yehud Medinata [] with different borders, covering a smaller territory.Add abet to one of your lists below, or create a new one. Definitions Clear explanations of natural written and spoken English.

Click on the arrows to change the translation direction. Follow us. Choose a dictionary. Clear explanations of natural written and spoken English. Usage explanations of natural written and spoken English. Word Lists. Choose your language. My word lists. Tell us about this example sentence:. The word in the example sentence does not match the entry word.

The sentence contains offensive content. Cancel Submit. Your feedback will be reviewed. His accountant had aided and abetted him in the fraud.

Helping and co-operating. You can also find related words, phrases, and synonyms in the topics: Encouraging and urging on. Related words abetment. Examples of abet. Even more widespread was the consumption of things that aided and abetted conversable sociability.

From the Cambridge English Corpus. In essence, this could be seen as condoning and abetting "teenage" pregnancy - which is culturally and professionally discouraged. These examples are from corpora and from sources on the web. Any opinions in the examples do not represent the opinion of the Cambridge Dictionary editors or of Cambridge University Press or its licensors. In these circumstances, physicians can play a crucial role if they choose to abet draft evasion.

Will prescribing and dispensing such pills constitute "aiding and abetting"? Such globalization increases poverty, malnutrition, starvation, sometimes abets the drug trade, in some places increases illiteracy and increases either joblessness or marginal employment.

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There is no doubt of his attraction to the power of flamenco, whose representations oijouissance his camera continually abets with dramatic angles and dancing movements.

Ineffective communications by loyalists abetted the supporters of an end to censorship. A war of words and definitions erupted between the two factions, aided and abetted by the jazz press.

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We cater for human well-being by ambitiously overcoming, rather than abetting, what otherwise would happen naturally and to our disadvantage. In fact, he denounced those intellectuals who turned themselves into servants of a monarchy and thereby aided and abetted an oppressive social and political order. This cycle is probably due to recurrent depression that is abetted by lack of a social support network.

This uncertainty has doubtless abetted the quantity of literature on the subject. Gaming the system is close to abetting draft evasion with one significant difference.

What Were Pogroms?

In response, we surmise that some physicians who abet draft evasion are answering to a higher moral principle that transcends both the law and bioethics.This article provides a list of definitions of the term pogrom. Numerous definitions of the term have been proposed by scholars and dictionary publishers, but use of the term is inconsistent.

Werner Bergmann writes that "there is as yet no consensus on terminology here among researchers", that "there has as yet been little interlinked research into pogroms" and that pogrom research has not yet focused on "distinguishing pogroms from other, closely related forms of ethnic violence". Brass and Neal Pease, have discussed the consistency of the application of the term and the implications of its usage. The term is sometimes used as "a generic term in English for all forms of collective violence directed against Jews"; however, usage of the word in this wider sense has been disputed.

The OED gives two meanings for the word: [6]. In Russia, Poland, and some other East European countries in the late 19th and early 20th centuries: an organized massacre aimed at the destruction or annihilation of a body or class of people, esp.

Now hist. An organized, officially tolerated, attack on any community or group. Also fig. The first recorded use in English by the OED of the first meaning is in as a borrowed word, and it had become fully Anglicised by The OED records the first use of the second meaning as and that it had become fully Anglicised by A general dictionary definition may be the one used by academics and other authorities when they describe an incident as a pogrom, or they may either select to use a different definition from a named source, or define the word themselves, to give it a specific meaning:.

Historian David Engel writes that "there can be no logically or empirically compelling grounds for declaring that some particular episode does or does not merit the label [pogrom]," but he offers that the majority of the incidents "habitually" described as pogroms have some shared characteristics. Usage of the word pogrom overlaps with other terminology used to describe collective violence.

Partial synonyms include:. John Klier writes that in relation to a list of 13 events "characterized as "pogroms" by historians", "virtually the only common feature of these events was that Jews were among the victims, although they were not always the primary target" [5] The YIVO Encyclopedia states that "The common usage of the term pogrom to describe any attack against Jews throughout history disguises the great variation in the scale, nature, motivation, and intent of such violence at different times" [32] Klier writes that the term is now "a generic term in English for all forms of collective violence directed against Jews" [5].

In the introduction to Anti-Jewish Violence: Rethinking the Pogrom in East European Historythe authors call the term a "somewhat reductionist rubric" in a discussion of the benefits of its usage. Miller writes that "The diversity of phenomena hiding behind the word pogrom is one of the symptoms of the ideological engagement of historiography" and, referring to Zygmunt Bauman 's comment on " anti-semitism " noted that "using the same name to denote phenomena separated by centuries hides as much as reveals Engel wrote that events "habitually tagged pogroms" include many "disparate occurrences" ranging from an event which "caused no Jewish casualties and did minimal damage to property" to events in which thousands of Jews were massacred.


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